## The Serpent Cipher’s Key Schedule Transform is Injective.

Let's try this somewhat different variant of the program, which represents recurring bits of the expansion symbolically (and in a slightly more readable form) :

```;; Register bitness. (defconstant +bitness+ 32)   (defun make-reg (reg-name bitness) "Make algebraic representation of a register (bits in descending majority)" (loop for i from (1- bitness) downto 0 collect (make-symbol (format nil "~A~A" reg-name i))))   (defun integer-to-reg (n &optional (pad-width +bitness+)) "Generate algebraic represenation of the given integer n." (let* ((bits '()) (integer-bitness (integer-length n)) (pad-bitness (- pad-width integer-bitness))) (dotimes (index integer-bitness bits) (push (if (logbitp index n) 1 0) bits)) ;; Append padding zeros, if required to make full width: (loop repeat pad-bitness do (push 0 bits)) bits))   (defun RL11 (reg) "Rotate given register leftward by 11." (append (subseq reg 11) (subseq reg 0 11)))   (defmacro reg-xor (&rest regs) "Make algebraic representation of the xor of given registers." `(map 'list #'(lambda (&rest args) (cons 'xor args)) ,@regs))   ;; Define the input registers (defvar *A* (make-reg "a" +bitness+)) (defvar *B* (make-reg "b" +bitness+)) (defvar *C* (make-reg "c" +bitness+)) (defvar *D* (make-reg "d" +bitness+)) (defvar *E* (make-reg "e" +bitness+)) (defvar *F* (make-reg "f" +bitness+)) (defvar *G* (make-reg "g" +bitness+)) (defvar *H* (make-reg "h" +bitness+))   ;; Serpent's 'goldenratio' turd (defconstant +serpent-const+ #x9E3779B9)   ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; from serpent.ada: ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; for I in 0..7 loop ;; W(-8+I) := Bytes_To_Word(K(4*I .. 4*I+3)); ;; end loop; ;; for I in 0..131 loop ;; W(I) := Rotate_Left(W(I-8) xor W(I-5) xor W(I-3) xor W(I-1) xor ;; 16#9e3779b9# xor Unsigned_32(I), 11); ;; end loop;   (defun serp-co-recur (k) "Co-recursive helper" (if (< k 0) (serpent-recurrence k) (make-reg (format nil "W~A-" k) +bitness+)))   (defun serpent-recurrence (k) "Generate k-th term of the Serpent key-expander recurrence equation." (case k ;; The key terms: (-8 *A*) (-7 *B*) (-6 *C*) (-5 *D*) (-4 *E*) (-3 *F*) (-2 *G*) (-1 *H*) ;; Any other term: (t (RL11 (reg-xor (integer-to-reg (logxor +serpent-const+ k)) (serp-co-recur (- k 8)) (serp-co-recur (- k 5)) (serp-co-recur (- k 3)) (serp-co-recur (- k 1)))))))   (defun print-reg-w (w reg stream) "Print algebraic register as table." (let ((l (1- (length reg)))) (loop for i from 0 upto l do (let* ((expr (nth (- l i) reg)) (const (cadr expr)) (terms (cddr expr))) (loop for clause in terms do (format stream " ~7A " clause)) (format stream "~A --> [W~A-~2d]~%" const w i)))))   ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; Print recurrence terms: (with-open-file (stream "serpent_proofolade.txt" :direction :output :if-exists :overwrite :if-does-not-exist :create) (loop for k from 0 upto 131 do (progn (format stream "~%Serpent W(~A):~%" k) (print-reg-w k (serpent-recurrence k) stream))))   (quit)```

We end up with this output. Observe that, starting with W(8):

```Serpent W(8): W0-21 W3-21 W5-21 W7-21 1 --> [W8- 0] W0-22 W3-22 W5-22 W7-22 0 --> [W8- 1] W0-23 W3-23 W5-23 W7-23 0 --> [W8- 2] W0-24 W3-24 W5-24 W7-24 0 --> [W8- 3] W0-25 W3-25 W5-25 W7-25 1 --> [W8- 4] W0-26 W3-26 W5-26 W7-26 1 --> [W8- 5] W0-27 W3-27 W5-27 W7-27 1 --> [W8- 6] W0-28 W3-28 W5-28 W7-28 1 --> [W8- 7] W0-29 W3-29 W5-29 W7-29 0 --> [W8- 8] W0-30 W3-30 W5-30 W7-30 0 --> [W8- 9] W0-31 W3-31 W5-31 W7-31 1 --> [W8-10] W0-0 W3-0 W5-0 W7-0 1 --> [W8-11] W0-1 W3-1 W5-1 W7-1 0 --> [W8-12] W0-2 W3-2 W5-2 W7-2 0 --> [W8-13] W0-3 W3-3 W5-3 W7-3 0 --> [W8-14] W0-4 W3-4 W5-4 W7-4 1 --> [W8-15] W0-5 W3-5 W5-5 W7-5 1 --> [W8-16] W0-6 W3-6 W5-6 W7-6 0 --> [W8-17] W0-7 W3-7 W5-7 W7-7 1 --> [W8-18] W0-8 W3-8 W5-8 W7-8 1 --> [W8-19] W0-9 W3-9 W5-9 W7-9 0 --> [W8-20] W0-10 W3-10 W5-10 W7-10 0 --> [W8-21] W0-11 W3-11 W5-11 W7-11 1 --> [W8-22] W0-12 W3-12 W5-12 W7-12 1 --> [W8-23] W0-13 W3-13 W5-13 W7-13 1 --> [W8-24] W0-14 W3-14 W5-14 W7-14 1 --> [W8-25] W0-15 W3-15 W5-15 W7-15 0 --> [W8-26] W0-16 W3-16 W5-16 W7-16 1 --> [W8-27] W0-17 W3-17 W5-17 W7-17 1 --> [W8-28] W0-18 W3-18 W5-18 W7-18 1 --> [W8-29] W0-19 W3-19 W5-19 W7-19 0 --> [W8-30] W0-20 W3-20 W5-20 W7-20 1 --> [W8-31]```

... no key bits any longer appear directly. Therefore we can constrain the analysis to W (expansion words) 0 through 7.

Now, let's take the last of these:

```Serpent W(7): h21 W2-21 W4-21 W6-21 1 --> [W7- 0] h22 W2-22 W4-22 W6-22 0 --> [W7- 1] h23 W2-23 W4-23 W6-23 0 --> [W7- 2] h24 W2-24 W4-24 W6-24 0 --> [W7- 3] h25 W2-25 W4-25 W6-25 1 --> [W7- 4] h26 W2-26 W4-26 W6-26 1 --> [W7- 5] h27 W2-27 W4-27 W6-27 1 --> [W7- 6] h28 W2-28 W4-28 W6-28 1 --> [W7- 7] h29 W2-29 W4-29 W6-29 0 --> [W7- 8] h30 W2-30 W4-30 W6-30 0 --> [W7- 9] h31 W2-31 W4-31 W6-31 1 --> [W7-10] h0 W2-0 W4-0 W6-0 0 --> [W7-11] h1 W2-1 W4-1 W6-1 1 --> [W7-12] h2 W2-2 W4-2 W6-2 1 --> [W7-13] h3 W2-3 W4-3 W6-3 1 --> [W7-14] h4 W2-4 W4-4 W6-4 1 --> [W7-15] h5 W2-5 W4-5 W6-5 1 --> [W7-16] h6 W2-6 W4-6 W6-6 0 --> [W7-17] h7 W2-7 W4-7 W6-7 1 --> [W7-18] h8 W2-8 W4-8 W6-8 1 --> [W7-19] h9 W2-9 W4-9 W6-9 0 --> [W7-20] h10 W2-10 W4-10 W6-10 0 --> [W7-21] h11 W2-11 W4-11 W6-11 1 --> [W7-22] h12 W2-12 W4-12 W6-12 1 --> [W7-23] h13 W2-13 W4-13 W6-13 1 --> [W7-24] h14 W2-14 W4-14 W6-14 1 --> [W7-25] h15 W2-15 W4-15 W6-15 0 --> [W7-26] h16 W2-16 W4-16 W6-16 1 --> [W7-27] h17 W2-17 W4-17 W6-17 1 --> [W7-28] h18 W2-18 W4-18 W6-18 1 --> [W7-29] h19 W2-19 W4-19 W6-19 0 --> [W7-30] h20 W2-20 W4-20 W6-20 1 --> [W7-31]```

Observe that, e.g., h21 xor W2-21 xor W4-21 xor W6-21 xor 1, which forms the output bit [W7- 0] , does not permit any alternate value for h21 -- given as W2-21, W4-21, and W6-21 must remain fixed. And that the same thing is true for all other bits in the key register H.

Now we continue walking backwards through the expansion:

```Serpent W(6): g21 W1-21 W3-21 W5-21 1 --> [W6- 0] g22 W1-22 W3-22 W5-22 0 --> [W6- 1] g23 W1-23 W3-23 W5-23 0 --> [W6- 2] g24 W1-24 W3-24 W5-24 0 --> [W6- 3] g25 W1-25 W3-25 W5-25 1 --> [W6- 4] g26 W1-26 W3-26 W5-26 1 --> [W6- 5] g27 W1-27 W3-27 W5-27 1 --> [W6- 6] g28 W1-28 W3-28 W5-28 1 --> [W6- 7] g29 W1-29 W3-29 W5-29 0 --> [W6- 8] g30 W1-30 W3-30 W5-30 0 --> [W6- 9] g31 W1-31 W3-31 W5-31 1 --> [W6-10] g0 W1-0 W3-0 W5-0 1 --> [W6-11] g1 W1-1 W3-1 W5-1 1 --> [W6-12] g2 W1-2 W3-2 W5-2 1 --> [W6-13] g3 W1-3 W3-3 W5-3 1 --> [W6-14] g4 W1-4 W3-4 W5-4 1 --> [W6-15] g5 W1-5 W3-5 W5-5 1 --> [W6-16] g6 W1-6 W3-6 W5-6 0 --> [W6-17] g7 W1-7 W3-7 W5-7 1 --> [W6-18] g8 W1-8 W3-8 W5-8 1 --> [W6-19] g9 W1-9 W3-9 W5-9 0 --> [W6-20] g10 W1-10 W3-10 W5-10 0 --> [W6-21] g11 W1-11 W3-11 W5-11 1 --> [W6-22] g12 W1-12 W3-12 W5-12 1 --> [W6-23] g13 W1-13 W3-13 W5-13 1 --> [W6-24] g14 W1-14 W3-14 W5-14 1 --> [W6-25] g15 W1-15 W3-15 W5-15 0 --> [W6-26] g16 W1-16 W3-16 W5-16 1 --> [W6-27] g17 W1-17 W3-17 W5-17 1 --> [W6-28] g18 W1-18 W3-18 W5-18 1 --> [W6-29] g19 W1-19 W3-19 W5-19 0 --> [W6-30] g20 W1-20 W3-20 W5-20 1 --> [W6-31]   Serpent W(5): f21 W0-21 W2-21 W4-21 1 --> [W5- 0] f22 W0-22 W2-22 W4-22 0 --> [W5- 1] f23 W0-23 W2-23 W4-23 0 --> [W5- 2] f24 W0-24 W2-24 W4-24 0 --> [W5- 3] f25 W0-25 W2-25 W4-25 1 --> [W5- 4] f26 W0-26 W2-26 W4-26 1 --> [W5- 5] f27 W0-27 W2-27 W4-27 1 --> [W5- 6] f28 W0-28 W2-28 W4-28 1 --> [W5- 7] f29 W0-29 W2-29 W4-29 0 --> [W5- 8] f30 W0-30 W2-30 W4-30 0 --> [W5- 9] f31 W0-31 W2-31 W4-31 1 --> [W5-10] f0 W0-0 W2-0 W4-0 0 --> [W5-11] f1 W0-1 W2-1 W4-1 0 --> [W5-12] f2 W0-2 W2-2 W4-2 1 --> [W5-13] f3 W0-3 W2-3 W4-3 1 --> [W5-14] f4 W0-4 W2-4 W4-4 1 --> [W5-15] f5 W0-5 W2-5 W4-5 1 --> [W5-16] f6 W0-6 W2-6 W4-6 0 --> [W5-17] f7 W0-7 W2-7 W4-7 1 --> [W5-18] f8 W0-8 W2-8 W4-8 1 --> [W5-19] f9 W0-9 W2-9 W4-9 0 --> [W5-20] f10 W0-10 W2-10 W4-10 0 --> [W5-21] f11 W0-11 W2-11 W4-11 1 --> [W5-22] f12 W0-12 W2-12 W4-12 1 --> [W5-23] f13 W0-13 W2-13 W4-13 1 --> [W5-24] f14 W0-14 W2-14 W4-14 1 --> [W5-25] f15 W0-15 W2-15 W4-15 0 --> [W5-26] f16 W0-16 W2-16 W4-16 1 --> [W5-27] f17 W0-17 W2-17 W4-17 1 --> [W5-28] f18 W0-18 W2-18 W4-18 1 --> [W5-29] f19 W0-19 W2-19 W4-19 0 --> [W5-30] f20 W0-20 W2-20 W4-20 1 --> [W5-31]```

Key registers G and F are nailed down in precisely the same way as H was earlier shown to be. Let's continue,

```Serpent W(4): e21 h21 W1-21 W3-21 1 --> [W4- 0] e22 h22 W1-22 W3-22 0 --> [W4- 1] e23 h23 W1-23 W3-23 0 --> [W4- 2] e24 h24 W1-24 W3-24 0 --> [W4- 3] e25 h25 W1-25 W3-25 1 --> [W4- 4] e26 h26 W1-26 W3-26 1 --> [W4- 5] e27 h27 W1-27 W3-27 1 --> [W4- 6] e28 h28 W1-28 W3-28 1 --> [W4- 7] e29 h29 W1-29 W3-29 0 --> [W4- 8] e30 h30 W1-30 W3-30 0 --> [W4- 9] e31 h31 W1-31 W3-31 1 --> [W4-10] e0 h0 W1-0 W3-0 1 --> [W4-11] e1 h1 W1-1 W3-1 0 --> [W4-12] e2 h2 W1-2 W3-2 1 --> [W4-13] e3 h3 W1-3 W3-3 1 --> [W4-14] e4 h4 W1-4 W3-4 1 --> [W4-15] e5 h5 W1-5 W3-5 1 --> [W4-16] e6 h6 W1-6 W3-6 0 --> [W4-17] e7 h7 W1-7 W3-7 1 --> [W4-18] e8 h8 W1-8 W3-8 1 --> [W4-19] e9 h9 W1-9 W3-9 0 --> [W4-20] e10 h10 W1-10 W3-10 0 --> [W4-21] e11 h11 W1-11 W3-11 1 --> [W4-22] e12 h12 W1-12 W3-12 1 --> [W4-23] e13 h13 W1-13 W3-13 1 --> [W4-24] e14 h14 W1-14 W3-14 1 --> [W4-25] e15 h15 W1-15 W3-15 0 --> [W4-26] e16 h16 W1-16 W3-16 1 --> [W4-27] e17 h17 W1-17 W3-17 1 --> [W4-28] e18 h18 W1-18 W3-18 1 --> [W4-29] e19 h19 W1-19 W3-19 0 --> [W4-30] e20 h20 W1-20 W3-20 1 --> [W4-31]   Serpent W(3): d21 g21 W0-21 W2-21 1 --> [W3- 0] d22 g22 W0-22 W2-22 0 --> [W3- 1] d23 g23 W0-23 W2-23 0 --> [W3- 2] d24 g24 W0-24 W2-24 0 --> [W3- 3] d25 g25 W0-25 W2-25 1 --> [W3- 4] d26 g26 W0-26 W2-26 1 --> [W3- 5] d27 g27 W0-27 W2-27 1 --> [W3- 6] d28 g28 W0-28 W2-28 1 --> [W3- 7] d29 g29 W0-29 W2-29 0 --> [W3- 8] d30 g30 W0-30 W2-30 0 --> [W3- 9] d31 g31 W0-31 W2-31 1 --> [W3-10] d0 g0 W0-0 W2-0 0 --> [W3-11] d1 g1 W0-1 W2-1 1 --> [W3-12] d2 g2 W0-2 W2-2 0 --> [W3-13] d3 g3 W0-3 W2-3 1 --> [W3-14] d4 g4 W0-4 W2-4 1 --> [W3-15] d5 g5 W0-5 W2-5 1 --> [W3-16] d6 g6 W0-6 W2-6 0 --> [W3-17] d7 g7 W0-7 W2-7 1 --> [W3-18] d8 g8 W0-8 W2-8 1 --> [W3-19] d9 g9 W0-9 W2-9 0 --> [W3-20] d10 g10 W0-10 W2-10 0 --> [W3-21] d11 g11 W0-11 W2-11 1 --> [W3-22] d12 g12 W0-12 W2-12 1 --> [W3-23] d13 g13 W0-13 W2-13 1 --> [W3-24] d14 g14 W0-14 W2-14 1 --> [W3-25] d15 g15 W0-15 W2-15 0 --> [W3-26] d16 g16 W0-16 W2-16 1 --> [W3-27] d17 g17 W0-17 W2-17 1 --> [W3-28] d18 g18 W0-18 W2-18 1 --> [W3-29] d19 g19 W0-19 W2-19 0 --> [W3-30] d20 g20 W0-20 W2-20 1 --> [W3-31]```

Having already found H, G and F to be immovable, we treat their values as constants and find that E and D are also fixed (no bit-flippage is possible in them without affecting the value of a key expansion bit.) Continuing:

```Serpent W(2): c21 f21 h21 W1-21 1 --> [W2- 0] c22 f22 h22 W1-22 0 --> [W2- 1] c23 f23 h23 W1-23 0 --> [W2- 2] c24 f24 h24 W1-24 0 --> [W2- 3] c25 f25 h25 W1-25 1 --> [W2- 4] c26 f26 h26 W1-26 1 --> [W2- 5] c27 f27 h27 W1-27 1 --> [W2- 6] c28 f28 h28 W1-28 1 --> [W2- 7] c29 f29 h29 W1-29 0 --> [W2- 8] c30 f30 h30 W1-30 0 --> [W2- 9] c31 f31 h31 W1-31 1 --> [W2-10] c0 f0 h0 W1-0 1 --> [W2-11] c1 f1 h1 W1-1 1 --> [W2-12] c2 f2 h2 W1-2 0 --> [W2-13] c3 f3 h3 W1-3 1 --> [W2-14] c4 f4 h4 W1-4 1 --> [W2-15] c5 f5 h5 W1-5 1 --> [W2-16] c6 f6 h6 W1-6 0 --> [W2-17] c7 f7 h7 W1-7 1 --> [W2-18] c8 f8 h8 W1-8 1 --> [W2-19] c9 f9 h9 W1-9 0 --> [W2-20] c10 f10 h10 W1-10 0 --> [W2-21] c11 f11 h11 W1-11 1 --> [W2-22] c12 f12 h12 W1-12 1 --> [W2-23] c13 f13 h13 W1-13 1 --> [W2-24] c14 f14 h14 W1-14 1 --> [W2-25] c15 f15 h15 W1-15 0 --> [W2-26] c16 f16 h16 W1-16 1 --> [W2-27] c17 f17 h17 W1-17 1 --> [W2-28] c18 f18 h18 W1-18 1 --> [W2-29] c19 f19 h19 W1-19 0 --> [W2-30] c20 f20 h20 W1-20 1 --> [W2-31]```

Key register C is nailed down;

```Serpent W(1): b21 e21 g21 W0-21 1 --> [W1- 0] b22 e22 g22 W0-22 0 --> [W1- 1] b23 e23 g23 W0-23 0 --> [W1- 2] b24 e24 g24 W0-24 0 --> [W1- 3] b25 e25 g25 W0-25 1 --> [W1- 4] b26 e26 g26 W0-26 1 --> [W1- 5] b27 e27 g27 W0-27 1 --> [W1- 6] b28 e28 g28 W0-28 1 --> [W1- 7] b29 e29 g29 W0-29 0 --> [W1- 8] b30 e30 g30 W0-30 0 --> [W1- 9] b31 e31 g31 W0-31 1 --> [W1-10] b0 e0 g0 W0-0 0 --> [W1-11] b1 e1 g1 W0-1 0 --> [W1-12] b2 e2 g2 W0-2 0 --> [W1-13] b3 e3 g3 W0-3 1 --> [W1-14] b4 e4 g4 W0-4 1 --> [W1-15] b5 e5 g5 W0-5 1 --> [W1-16] b6 e6 g6 W0-6 0 --> [W1-17] b7 e7 g7 W0-7 1 --> [W1-18] b8 e8 g8 W0-8 1 --> [W1-19] b9 e9 g9 W0-9 0 --> [W1-20] b10 e10 g10 W0-10 0 --> [W1-21] b11 e11 g11 W0-11 1 --> [W1-22] b12 e12 g12 W0-12 1 --> [W1-23] b13 e13 g13 W0-13 1 --> [W1-24] b14 e14 g14 W0-14 1 --> [W1-25] b15 e15 g15 W0-15 0 --> [W1-26] b16 e16 g16 W0-16 1 --> [W1-27] b17 e17 g17 W0-17 1 --> [W1-28] b18 e18 g18 W0-18 1 --> [W1-29] b19 e19 g19 W0-19 0 --> [W1-30] b20 e20 g20 W0-20 1 --> [W1-31]```

... and B;

```Serpent W(0): a21 d21 f21 h21 1 --> [W0- 0] a22 d22 f22 h22 0 --> [W0- 1] a23 d23 f23 h23 0 --> [W0- 2] a24 d24 f24 h24 0 --> [W0- 3] a25 d25 f25 h25 1 --> [W0- 4] a26 d26 f26 h26 1 --> [W0- 5] a27 d27 f27 h27 1 --> [W0- 6] a28 d28 f28 h28 1 --> [W0- 7] a29 d29 f29 h29 0 --> [W0- 8] a30 d30 f30 h30 0 --> [W0- 9] a31 d31 f31 h31 1 --> [W0-10] a0 d0 f0 h0 1 --> [W0-11] a1 d1 f1 h1 0 --> [W0-12] a2 d2 f2 h2 0 --> [W0-13] a3 d3 f3 h3 1 --> [W0-14] a4 d4 f4 h4 1 --> [W0-15] a5 d5 f5 h5 1 --> [W0-16] a6 d6 f6 h6 0 --> [W0-17] a7 d7 f7 h7 1 --> [W0-18] a8 d8 f8 h8 1 --> [W0-19] a9 d9 f9 h9 0 --> [W0-20] a10 d10 f10 h10 0 --> [W0-21] a11 d11 f11 h11 1 --> [W0-22] a12 d12 f12 h12 1 --> [W0-23] a13 d13 f13 h13 1 --> [W0-24] a14 d14 f14 h14 1 --> [W0-25] a15 d15 f15 h15 0 --> [W0-26] a16 d16 f16 h16 1 --> [W0-27] a17 d17 f17 h17 1 --> [W0-28] a18 d18 f18 h18 1 --> [W0-29] a19 d19 f19 h19 0 --> [W0-30] a20 d20 f20 h20 1 --> [W0-31]```

... and A. Which accounts for the entire key.

There is not, in fact, any possibility of changing any portion of the key without producing a change in an output expansion bit, regardless of what you do. Ergo, we have the previously-sought proof:

The key expander of the Serpent cipher is injective, there are precisely 2256 possible expansions -- one for each possible key.

There still could be interesting problems with the expander (e.g., it is -- by all indications -- reversible) but, at the very least, it is entropy-conserving.

Why the original authors of Serpent did not see it fit to present this proof to the public, I do not know; but now it can be seen here.

The remaining components of the Serpent cipher, we will leave for another time.

~The End~ (For now...)

This entry was written by Stanislav , posted on Friday November 02 2018 , filed under Bitcoin, Cold Air, Computation, Cryptography, Distractions, Friends, Lisp, Mathematics, ModestProposal, NonLoper, SerpentCipher, SoftwareArchaeology, SoftwareSucks . Bookmark the permalink . Post a comment below or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.